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Павлюк Надежда Леонидовна
Государственное учреждение «Южноукраинский национальный педагогический университет им. К. Д. Ушинского»
аспирант кафедры украинской и зарубежной литератур

В статье исследованы особенности формирования художественно-философской концепции исторической прозы украинского писателя Ю. Мушкетика, которая в определенной степени сказалась на специфике онтологической парадигмы произведений автора. Осмысление основных принципов онтологии персонажей осуществляется во взаимосвязи с ключевыми позициями двух ведущих философских направлений XX-XXI вв. – рационального (прагматизм) и иррационального (экзистенциализм). Освещена идейно-философская основа произведений Ю. Мушкетика относительно мировоззренческих убеждений писателя и философских взглядов героев по осмыслению проблемы мира и человека в нем на принципах гуманизма.

Ключевые слова: гуманизм, историческая проза, онтология, прагматизм, художественная антропология, художественно-философская концепция, экзистенциализм


Pavlyuk Nadezhda Leonidovna
State Institution «Southern National Pedagogical University of K. D. Ushynskyi'»
postgraduate student of Ukrainian and foreign literatures

The peculiarities of the formation of the art-philosophical conception of Ukrainian writer Yu. Mushketyk's historical fiction that influenced on the ontological paradigm's specific of the artist's works, are studied in the article. The understanding of the basic principles of the character's ontology is performed in the relation to the key positions of two major philosophical trends of XX-XXI centuries – rational (pragmatic) and irrational (existentialism). The ideological and philosophical basis of Yu. Mushketyk's works, the writer's world outlook and the philosophical background of the characters' views on the problem of understanding the world and a man in it on the principles of humanism are investigated in the article.

Keywords: art-philosophical concept, artistic anthropology, existentialism, historical fiction, humanism, ontology, pragmatism

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Павлюк Н.Л. Yu. Mushketyk's historical heritage: the specific of the ontological paradigm // Филология и литературоведение. 2014. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://philology.snauka.ru/2014/03/715 (дата обращения: 14.05.2024).

Strengthening of philosophic perception of the events being depicted in the works of XX-XXI centuries on historical theme is a peculiar feature of the development of those works. The leading literary critics (S. Andrusiv, N. Bernadska, M. Ilnytskyi, L. Romashchenko and so on) point out to this feature of historical prose. Thus, a scholar M. Ilnytskyi while analysing the main trends of the development of historical prose in XX century states that a philosophic approach ”…to comprehension of history gives an opportunity and grounds for understanding in a new way our achievements which exceed the cruel regulated limits of the genre classifications formed by following the principle of reconstruction, trustworthiness of the facts and the heroe” [1, p. 7-8]. Analyst M. Bogdanova also affirms that the philosophic understanding of history is a qualitatively new feature of the historical works, because the same approach to comprehension of historical facts as this one ”…induces the authors to a search of new forms and methods – inclusion of different elements of conditionality, a myth, parables, symbols, fantasy, a fairy tale, grotesque to a narration of a traditional realistic type” [2, p. 118]. So, the writers while reproducing many-sided historical panorama in their works present an artistic and philosophic comprehension of historical themes, saturate their works with complicated philosophic problems and categories.

Strengthening of philosophical basis is being observed in the historical prose of the famous Ukrainian writer Yu. Mushketyk as well. The historical heritage of the writer was wholly or partially a subject of such dissertations as: N. Horbach ”The historical prose by Juriy Mushketyk”, M. Kondratyuk The Ukrainian Multiple-time Novel: Problems of the Poetics”, O. Protsenko ”The evolution of the Ukrainian historical novel in the 1990s”, L. Romas Artistik Interpretation of National Selfacknowledgement in Yuri Mushketick Historical Prose“ and various literary essays by F. Keida, M. Kodak, M. Kononenko, V. Pyanov, L. Fedorov, A. Shevchenko, V. Shevchuk, A. Shpytal etc. But many-sidedness of historical works of the master gives opportunities for a deeper and more detailed study that determined the purpose of our article – an analysis of specificity of ontological paradigm of Yu. Mushketyk’s historical prose in the context of the author’s art-philosophic concept.

XX century is represented by a branched system of philosophic trends, schools, concepts which differ from each other. Nevertheless, the central problem is the problem of dialectician of a human being and the world, which has been raised especially acutely after the two world wars and the scientific and technological revolution. In connection with these facts the two trends as to the study of a human beings opposed to one another by their basis were separated – a rational one (pragmatism) and an irrational one (existentialism, philosophy of life, personalism, philosophical anthropology). In general, an image of a human being is a core of any work of art, because since “…those days, when fiction literature has appeared it is eager, first of all, to search, to cognize one thing – a human being… The strengthening of a human’s image is a main line of the development of a real art that has ever been serving as a way of a reflection of life. It is a life that induces to a persistent search; it is through the study of life that the master’s thirst is slaked” [3, p. 2].

Yu. Mushketyk also comprehends the essence of a human in various aspects by using the tragic pages of History of Ukraine and by analysing the laws of perception of the world, the outstanding views and the vital positions in the context of historic events and the particularities of human psychology, ontology and epistemology as well.

Accentuation of attention on the historic events, details and historic figures, but not on an inside state of the heroes or on a philosophic comprehension of particularities of a human existence, is a peculiar feature in the first historical works of the author, the story ”Semen Paliy” (“Semen Palii”) and the novel ”Haidamaky” (“Haidamaky”). In the abovementioned works we are observing a social division of the heroes into the masters and the people dependent on the masters, who are treated worse ”…than cattle is treated, are tortured by any reason. If a huntsman sets the dogs on a hare in a wrong time – let him be caned; if the horses eat badly – let the grooms be caned; if a little butter is churned – let the milkmaids be whipped. If anyone says a word for the sake of defence, he will be locked where no-one can find him” [4, v. 1, p. 199]. In connection with that fact the vital principles of the characters differ: the masters are trying to keep power in their hands, and the oppressed people are trying to gain freedom by using all their strength. An overwhelming desire to gain freedom and to achieve justice became a binding power which united the peasants, who had no rights, for the revolt under Semen Paliy’s leadership that served as a peculiar impulse to the enormous people’s revolt in 1768 – Koliivshchyna.

As we can see a dominating idea in an art-philosophic concept of the story ”Semen Paliy” (“Semen Palii”) is struggle for justice, truth and freedom of population of Pravoberezhna Ukraine and the whole Ukraine; first in the novel ”Haidamaky” (“Haidamaky”) a faith grounded on Christian religious dogmas and later a fight against feudal-serfage customs and liberation of Pravoberezhna Ukraine from the authority of Rich Pospolyta are the objects of philosophic comprehension.

We can observe as in the process of writing of other historical novels and stories was in progress the improvement of individual author’s style, strengthening of philosophic perception of the problems being analysed by the writer, focusing on the depths of human existence. Therefore, humanitarian problems take a significant place in ideological-philosophic prose of the author; that fact was pointed out by some analysts of the writer’s works; it is a human being with all the laws of existence and conceptions of the world inherent in him/her that is a centre of his art-philosophic paradigm. A literary critic L. Romashchenko, while analysing the particularities of historical Romance philology, noticed that the writers refuse “…assiduous copying of historical facts, illustrating of orthodox official versions; they direct our attention both to an inextinguishable flame of “the father’s light”, “and to the scars” from the wounds of our history, and to a human soul” [5, p. 66]. From this reason art anthropology, in opinion of a literary critic T. Kononchuk, “…characterizes an art manner of the master as a whole” [6, p. 20].

A human being in Yu. Mushketyk’s works is a kind of point in a solution of various historical, philosophic, moral and ethical problems. In connection with this in the writer’s historical prose one can feel an influence of an irrational philosophic trend of 20th century – existentialism (S. Kierkegaard, M. Heidegger, K. Jaspers, J.-P. Sartre, A. Camus), which sets uniqueness, peculiarity and value of a human life in the first place. Many times in his works the writer raises actual philosophic problems, concerning the sense of human existence, joy of life and human happiness, he gives readers an opportunity to think about philosophic grounds of life by analysing the categories of existentialism such as a sense of life, death, despair, fear, loneliness, sorrow, etc.

Another influential trend of 20th century philosophy is a rational trend; the philosophic school of pragmatism is prominent in this trend (Ch. Peirce and W. James). A basis of philosophy of pragmatism is a conception of activity, benefit and profit that caused the understanding of truth as the best factor that works for sake of human [7, p. 154-155]. While baring essentiality covetousness and aspiration for power, which lead to wrecking and losing human values, Yu. Mushketyk draws attention to the positions of pragmatism, which cause such immoral feelings. So, the life of Hetman Ivan Samoilovych, the hero of the novel “Yasa” (“Iasa”), is filled with pragmatic purposes: “Samoilovych smiled sparingly. Oh, no, all honey has not been drunk yet. All treasures have not been collected yet” [8, p. 103], which means that his life was not measured by the good things he did for his native land, but by number of valuable things in his treasury.

The heroes of each work of the master are guided in the time of seizure of power in their hands by pragmatism, but not a wish of improvement of people’s life: “Hetmen live taking delight in greed for power, in villainous minutes of pleasure. They do not care what will happen after they die” [8, p. 75]. Thus, a mace being a symbol of power and justice transformed into a desirable object; ruses and deceits prevailed while Hetmen were fighting for it; innocent human blood was shed and the native land was suffering from extremity and enemy attacks as a result of Hetmen’s inactivity.

While the characters, full of patriotic thoughts (Pavlo Polubotok, Ivan Sulyma (“Hetman’s Treasure” (“Het′mans′kyi skarb”)), Ivan Honta, Maxym Zaliznyak (“Haidamaky” (“Haidamaky”)), Ivan Vyhovskyi (“The brother against the brother” (“Na brata brat”)), Ivan Mazepa (“Semen Paliy” (“Semen Palii”), there is a bit another concept of Mazepa in the connection with the censorship of the time in the work), Mokiy Syrovatka, Lavrin Perekhrest, Dorophiy Ruzha, Zhdan Huk (“Yasa” (“Iasa”)), Semen Bilokobylka (“ThePursuit” (“Pohonia”))), arranged their life priorities quite differently and their images are presented in a halo of sacrifice. So, Kish Otaman Ivan Sirko, the hero of the ”Yasa” (“Iasa”), devoted all his life to the native land: ”How many things he did in his life! How many times he went across the Sich! He was worrying about the affairs of Zaporizhzhian land, but he left his live with all delights and tinctures to the best times” [8, p. 276-277]. As a result of that, his children ”…were growing without the father, whispering his name together with the prayer” [9, p. 310], his wife lived waiting for her husband-cossack constantly. The harmony of Sirko’s family has been broken by the death of his sons Petro and Roman. His wife almost lost her mind and Ivan was wrapped up in himself even more. He was driven with a sole desire of bringing freedom to his native land.
Though Sirko realizes at the end of his life that there is nothing more sacred in the life than the house and that ”life is the house where there are housewife and children. A house with children even smells different than a Cossack dwelling” [9, p. 315], even, ”…a widow’s house with orphans has a bitter but invincible smell of life…” [9, p. 315]. Thus, the house, a quiet calm family life acquire a sacral sense. A farm activity acquires ontological dimension as well. The author shows happiness and gladness from common peasant labour while depicting a scene, where the Otaman Sirko took a scythe during the harvest. Nevertheless ”…our earth, people are made from rye and cherries. Rye is life. It is impossible to live being driven by hatred only. People, who are driven by it, are terrible. It is necessary to live in love” [8, p. 142]. Most people are dreaming about such a life; Mokiy Syrovatka, the hero of the historical novel ”Yasa” (“Iasa”), is not an exception. He thinks of the future and the meeting with his son Lavrin many times and ”…returns in his thought to the dreamt farmstead. And he sees that his son is a well-off farmer, and he sees himself a happy grandfather surrounded by grandchildren. Lavrin and he are going together to the field and that field is theirs. The rye hasn’t grown ripe yet, but it has flourished…” [8, p. 207].
As we can see, Mokiy’s thoughts-dreams are directed to the future, and labour is the basis of such future; these dreams are sort of wish of happiness, a better fate for his child that unfortunately was unreal at that time.

Deep ontological signs of Ukrainian people’s mentality are also cognized through the thoughts of Matviy Zhuravka, who is the hero of the novel ”The Brother Against The Brother” (“Na brata brat”), and through his vital philosophy. A basis of his vital position is
a sense of duty before the family, the children, the Homeland. Matviy was feeling ”…duty before his fate, his family; he knew at the same time that he is its roots and a crown, he is responsible for prosperity and peace” [10, p. 227].
In this connection he defended his brother Suprun being guided by fraternal duty, he helped him, ”…because he defended his family and himself… To the prejudice… of Hetman” [10, p. 193], to the prejudice of himself.

Semen Bilokobylka, the main hero of the historical novel ”The Pursuit” (“Pohonia”), thinks over the sense of life too: ”We, the Ukrainians, in reality pretend that it is better for us to scythe with a sabre, but in fact we are tenderhearted and very peaceful and our hands adhere to a scythe by themselves…” [11, p. 202]. As we can see, a combination of weapon and tools, blood of the patriots and sweat of the peasants is typical for historical prose of the writer. Yu. Mushketyk by using life fates of his heroes as an example forces the readers to think about complication and ambiguity of each person’s life. In addition to that, while comprehending the general key ontological ideas we are observing dialectical interlacement of individual fates and tragic pages of history. The ontological direction of the above mentioned is strengthened by sacrifice for sake of something greater – a decent and happy future.

As to the historical novel ”The Pursuit” (“Pohonia”), in comparison with ”Yasa” (“Iasa”), in which with Ivan Sirko’s image ”pensiveness lives nearby” [12, p. 154], the author’s laconic philosophizing of a generalized character is typical for this work; the author puts this philosophizing into the mouth not only of the main character, but also into the mouth of less important characters. In the first place it is connected with this fact that in his novel Yu. Mushketyk studies the fates of common people, who were created by his imagination. Those were the Cossacks and mainly the peasants, busy with everyday farming affairs. A common life philosophy with elements of folklore and mythology is a world-view basis of the heroes of “The Pursuit” (“Pohonia”). Belief in devildom (devils, demons, witches), various Semen Bilokobylka’s and Lyvon’s transformations into the objects of flora and fauna emphasize the folklore-mythology roots of the world outlooks of the personages of the work being researched. Only simple truth saturated with life experience determines the general principles of a life philosophy of the heroes and forces the readers to become thoughtful of the foundations of their own existence.

Comparison of the heroes’ life by taking into consideration a time period ”before” and ”after” any key moment is typical for historical prose of the writer. Life ”before” this moment is rhythmic, ”after” it differs by its quick speed or on the contrary. So, Yuras Khmelnychenko from the historical story ”The Night Without Dawn” (“Nich bez svitannia”) before his father’s death had a quiet steady life filled with a book wisdom: ”The father imbued me all his life. First of all, he imbued my walks of life with his guiding and simply my life. As soon as his father was alive, everything was in its place, everything was in order…” [13, p. 110-111]. But after the death of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi the boy appeared in a whirl of life and war in the role of Hetman. In the work one can feel Yuras’ unpreparedness for adult life; the epithet ”childish”, repeated by the author many times, points out to this fact.

In addition to that, Yu. Mushketyk, while researching the rules of Matviy’s existence, the hero of the novel ”The Brother Against The Brother” (“Na brata brat”), separates two periods in his life: a period before that moment, when Hetnam Ivan Vygovskyi detected that he had helped his brother, and a period, when Matviy had lost a position of a paper clerk and when he was demoted to serve in the sotnia: ”…the light was ever before him, it attracted him, called, and the life seemed to him to be severe but attractive. Everything was broken all at once when the light went out” [10, p. 199]. Till this minute his life was filled with the family and ”state” troubles, he saw its sense as a simple peasant labour; that moment, when he lost a strong Hetman support, became a breaking one in his life, because now Matviy was behind everything, outside of the life. That fact that he was unnecessary depressed the man most of all, but he didn’t lose dignity and remained faithful to his life principles till his death.

The author also approximately divides Oleksiy Rozumovskyi’s life, the hero of the novel ”The Last Hetman” (“Ostannii het′man”), into two periods: his childhood in the native village and a social existence in the high world at Elizabeth’s court. Though his child’s years were difficult and filled with bitter experience, but when he was in the territory of Russia and when he had saturated with a court life, Oleksiy recollected the parents’ yard and the native places with tender tremble and warm. While tracing a line round the milestones of the brothers Oleksiy and Kyrylo Rozumovskis’ life, once Yu. Mushketyk emphasizes some times duplicity, falseness, and forced artificiality of their life. Yu. Mushketyk acts so by means of changing of the heroes’ clothes, a literary method spread in literary criticism. The changing of his clothes, which is being identified with non-authenticity of existence, determines, in sort, the life of the brothers Rozumovskis, who left native Lemeshi and settled down in St. Petersburg: “Kyrylo flew from Paris while the first martlets flew. Oleksiy observed him closely for a long time and couldn’t recognize: a fop, a swell, a dandy with jabot and a hat with a peacock’s feather, with fine wristbands, he shuffled his feet and scrubbed the floor with this feather so skilfully that the most dashing court men of fashion were struck…” [14, p. 42].

Besides the foreign clothes, foreign customs, foreign orders were being inseminated. It is difficult to analyse, how conscious was the life choice of the heroes, but a court life was weird for them, especially for Oleksiy, though there were neither energy nor power to change it. He lived as if his life weren’t his own; he had his real life only in his thoughts and his recollections. Duplicity of existence also led to duplicity in the soul of the hero. He began to realize, that an ideal life acquires the features of authenticity in comparison with his real life in the court of the empress.

In addition to that, a false life was reproduced by the author by means of using a method of a play. As usual, in the works by Yu. Mushketyk a play opens such a part of Hetmen’s existence as “‘life as a show”. So, Hetman Ivan Mazepathe hero of the historical story ”Semen Paliy” (“Semen Palii”),
“…was performing a bit. He performed a valiant Cossack, Zaporozhzhian Cossack, having left everything in the furthest corner: collegium, Lath, customs acquired in the tsar court” [15, v. 2, p. 246]. Ivan Samoilovych, from the novel ”Yasa” (“Iasa”), also applies to a play as an original salvation: ”Now he has to follow that course of conduct, to pretend to be a kind grumbler, not to give it up, to hide his enlightenment, his erudition – a literate person is clever – his penetration (he also sees trough Romodanovskyi), to perform like students in the market” [8, p. 103]. As we can see, a play helps the heroes to hide their real essentials, to present an image of a ruler in a good for themselves light. An addition to this, this method is an original mode of comprehending ontological basis of the world, but a mask, the characters wear, distorts their sensation of the world, conceptions of the world and their views; their performance gains features of falsity.

In historical prose of the writer one can observe a tendency of methaphorization of life in the shape of different symbolic images (a house, a road, rye, etc.); this fact emphasizes not only a general philosophic content of Yu. Mushketyk’s works, but also it determines a philosophic substratum of a human existence. So, Ivan Sirko compares life and the world with a seed-bud: ”The world arose from blossom, from a seed-bud. And a seed-bud is the truth” [8, p. 155]. Metaphorization of the world as blossom, as a seed-bud guides to an intertextual connection of this moment in the historical novel of the writer with a novel by H. Tyutyunnyk ”The Seed-bud”; in this novel a symbolic image associates with renewal of surrounding world and a human soul with clear and high feeling of love. It is such a symbolic filling of this image that we can observe in”Hetman’s Treasure” (“Het′mans′kyi skarb”), when people, who fell in love, came across a bush, which was covered with white and tender blossom: ”…these were we, who came across this bush, it bloomed for us, and that was a prophetic sign. It is a good sign. Blossom is life, beauty, it is always for good” [16, p. 65]. In the novel ”Yasa” (“Iasa”) Otaman Sirko perceives seed-bud, which is a detail saturated with a deep philosophic content, as belief in justice, better future, power of love. Correlation of life with an image of pursuit we can observe in the novel of the same name by a historical fiction writer: ”…I tried to escape a pursuit all my long life, but it is life that is mostly a pursuit…” [11, p. 178] and in the historical story ”The Night Without Down” (“Nich bez svitannia”): ”…later Yuriy thought many times that all human life is pursuit and escape” [17, p. 74]. In”Yasa” (“Iasa”) life is compared with a court: ”Strictly speaking, all human life is a court. Against other people, against a fate, against oneself” [9, p. 387].

As we can see, life essentiality itself displays in these above analyzed images-symbols; a deep sense is laid into them that strengthens philosophic perception of existential conception of the world by each human being.

So, an art comprehension of the historical past of Ukraine described in the Ukrainian Romanist Yu. Mushketyk’s works characterizes with certain aspects of philosophic perception by the author as a person of 20th -21st centuries though specificity of the universe of the historical epoch being reproduced and the characters’ views are taken into consideration as well. A dualistic synthesis of rational (pragmatism) and irrational (existentialism) philosophic trends, which becomes more and more powerful in the following works, defines the main dominating ideas of art-philosophic position of the author and has an influence on forming a general model of the world and concert of a human being in a historical masterpiece of the writer and in connection with that it also has an influence on specificity of reproduction of an ontological paradigm of the master’s works. In Yu. Mushketyk’s historical prose we have rather a broad picture of different aspects of life at that time, because an object representation in his works is existence of different stratums of the society: Cossacks, common people, peasants, hetmen, tsars, masters and each of them has his/her own system of views of life.

Though philosophic saturation of Yu. Mushketyk’s novels and stories is not equivalent (among historical masterpiece of the author the first historical works – the story “Semen Paliy” (“Semen Palii”) and the novel “Haidamaky” (“Haidamaky”) – are greatly notable; in these works the author doesn’t emphasize a philosophic implication of the historical periods; the novel “The Pursuit” (“Pohonia”) is greatly notable as well, a myth-poetic trend of the events being depicted is determinant for this novel), but in connection with that fact that his works combine joint points of intersection then the main categories of a life philosophy are fighting, duty, justice, authenticity of human existence. The main art methods by means of which many-sidedness of the personages’ life is being exposed is metaphor (metaphorization of life as the images-symbols of labour, pursuit, seed-bud, a court and a play) and a contrast (comparison of life in the time periods “before” and “after” any key moment, correlation of the laws of existence of different social strata). Comprehension of the key principles of ontology of the characters of Yu. Mushketyk’s historical prose is grounded on a base of the author’s original art-philosophic concept, on a system of axiological dominants and moral-ethic categories in connection with described historical circumstances.

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