УДК 929

ВЗГЛЯД НА ЖИЗНЬ РИЧАРДА III

Аксенова Анастасия Александровна
Кемеровский государственный университет

Аннотация
Эта статья представляет собой взгляд на жизнь Ричарда III.

LOOK AT THE LIFE OF RICHARD III

Akseonova Anastasiya Aleksandrovna
Kemerovo State University

Abstract
This article is a look at the life of Richard III.

Keywords: look at the life, Richard III


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Аксенова А.А. Look at the life of Richard III // Филология и литературоведение. 2014. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://philology.snauka.ru/2014/03/727 (дата обращения: 02.05.2017).

From his childhood Ruchard was small, thin and humpback. Up to XIX century the historians represented him as a cruel and crafty, ready to do any evel deed for his personal power. He was dodged and cunning man, capable for any cruel violence. He was accused of the death his brother Clarence, his own wife, nephews and other relatives.

This “black legend” was promoted by historians and dramatists of the end of XV century. The same was done by the Lancasters, the enemies of the Yorks and even somegYork barons.

Richard was born in 1452. Inthe couse of the political struggle in the second half of XV century he remained true to the king Edward. Even when Warick and Clarence began to make a plot for Henry’s restoration on the English throne, Richard kept a fidelity to his brother Edward. Richard Gloster was his right hand in all Edward’s actions. Gloster was a good administrator, assistant and adviser to the king. He seemed to be a true helper to his brother king.

When Edward was captured by the adherents of the plot in August 1469, Richard, being devoted to Edward, rushed to the North of England to collect the forces for defending his brother, because Richard had a great influence and authority in the North. In the 70s Richard represented the royal interests in the North where there were the majority of Richard’s supporters.His relations with the city ofYorkwere especially close.To this city he also addressed for the help when he became the protector for small Edward IV. As a whole duing Edward’s life time Richard always behaved loyally.

The judgement about Richard should not be based on later history as the murder of the princes. So far as he is a figure disputable, it is necessary try to see in his early actions more than it was.

Shakespeare said that the death of Clarence was the result of Richard’s intrigues, but Thomas Moore frankly asserted that Richard was against the punishment over Clarence.

The tradition represents Richard almost a monster : the Tudor’s historians depicted him as a dawarf, humpbacked and a malicious demonic person. It is undoubtedly exaggeration : thou Gloster was small but carried the weapon and perfectly fought. His thin clever face sharpy contrasted with Edward’s rourh face. In green years Richard was a handsome youth. Richard possessed a realy royal bearing.

When Edward died queen Elisabeth was inLondonand Richard Gloster was in the North of England. Queen Elisabeth should bring her son to the capital immidiatelly, but she knew about her unpopularity in Londonand did not arrive there.

Only in there weeks the heir Edward V was conveyed to London for crowning Gloster went to Edward V and arrested his suit. The young king who was only 12 years old weeped bitterly and Richard said to him that his uncle, that is, Richard himself would be only his tutor and regent.

Queen Elisabeth with her children ran away to Wenstminster in searching of a refuge. Her brother Woodvil and Dorcet went by ship over the sea.

The count-revolution made by Gloster was rather popular and usuall because Londoners did not like the queen’s relatives. They belived that Gloster wanted to be only a regent.

It was decided that the coronation of Edward V would take place on June 22 1483. Soon Richard’s supporters began to arrive toLondon, Gloster sent Edward V to the Tower. That was very suspiciously because everybody knew that the young king hated his uncle. So Gloster decided to get rid of the boy.

Richard forced Edward V to give the order on execution of the queen’s relatives. In May 1484 young king came toLondonaccompanied by Richard and Buckinghem. In three days Richard Gloster went toWestminsterand by threats made Elisabeth to give him her second son prince Richard.

Richard Gloster appointed the residence for the nephews the Tower. He had spread the rumour that Elisabeth’s children were illegitimate and had no right to inherit the royal power. In order to plase Richard Gloster the Parliament declared that king Edward’s marriage with Elisabeth was illegitimate and the princes could not be crowned on the royal throne.

But in spite of that decision Richard could not have the rights on the throne would have to pass into the hands of the Duke Clarence or his son. Because of this obstacle Richard accused Clarence of a state treason. After that action the crown had passed to Richard Gloster. THus he readched the desired aim : there was no any obstracles from taking the crown, and he was crowned as the king of England Richard III in July 6, 1483. The citizens of London regarded to this with indifference.

Then Richard III had gone to trip about the country. Before his departure he had hinted that during his absence the princes should  die. Richard did not publish any message about their death in June 22, 1483.

In despite of great attention to this problem, it seems improbable that it was possible to open all the circumstances of destruction Edward’s IV children. But obviously their remains were found in 1674 under a ladder of theWhiteTower.

This useless murder of the young princes was sensless and nobody need. It would make a strong blow to Richard’s reputation. Nevertheless Richard III established a despotic regime in the country.

In two months Duke Buckinghem rose against Richard III All the time before the Duck was Richard’s ally. Apparently Buckinghem conceived to rise againts Richard soon after his coronation and his departure from London. The new king knew nothing and went on his absence the Duke expessed in the talks with his friends the displeasure with Richard III.

When the rumour about the violent death of Edward’s sons reached Buckinghem he decided to raise a revolt agaist Richard. During the king’s trip the revolt had flashed in several counties in October 1483. Richard managed to take the situation under his control. The royal  army sat out against the rebellions. Duke Buckinghem left his troops and took shelter in Yorkshire. He was caught and executed inSalisburyon November 2, 1483.

In April 1484 Richard’s son died. Next year the king’s wife died too. The rumour began to circulate about Richard’s intention to marry Elisabeth York, his nice. May be this rumour was set by Richard himself to know what his supporters would say about it. When his friends heard that rumour, they were terrified by that news, and Richard said that he did not intend to marry her.

At that time all the emigrants fromEnglandwere very hospitably acepted inFrance. Henry Tudor, his uncle jusper Tudor and many other Richard’s enemies found shelter there. ItEnglandthe goverment understood that a great force was gathering on the Continent and expected in England too. There were many enemies inside the country.

Richard looked for money everywhere he could. In May he left the capital and all the summer roved about England and collected money. The goverment prepared the army and Navy for the future battles. These drastic measures needed huge sum of the money.The king extorted money by all kinds of means. In spring 1485 Richard obtained 20 thosand pounds.

At the same time Henry Tudor was preparing the revolt with the help of his supporters. On August 7, 1485 Henry Tudor and many other English and French dukes landed inWales. Some towns inWalesand other counties had promised them their help. But at the moment of the battle near Bosvort Henry had not more than five thousand of men.

Getting to know about Henry’s invasion in Wales Richard III began to call barons to him. But lords in the south and west did not come to the king . Henry Tudor’s stepfather Stanley had used an especially big influence on them. The enemies met at Bosvort. Whem the battle had began andStanleyhad attacked the royal armies, they ran away with the shout ” Treason!” Because of Stanly’s  tredchery Richard understood that his deed had been given a horse, but he refused to run. He said that he would die as the king ofEngland  and he left on the field of battle.

Richard fought to the very last passibility. At last he was surrounded by the enemies . He was given a mortal blow at his head by a fighting axe. The broken crown fell down from Richard’s helmet. It was found in the bush of hawthorn and was immediatly put on Henry Tudor’s head.

Together with king Richard III his not numerous supporters perished in this battle. They were Duke Norflok, Ratcliff, Percy and nearly a thousand other representatives of the nobility.

In this very last battle not many barons took part. They were perished during the long war of the Scarlet and White Roses.


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